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Managers are actors that are in charge of some state and that offer some functionality to other actors (which may be managers as well or not).

The way managers offer their functionality is by handling different types of messages that other actors can send to them and by responding to them (if necessary).

Also, some managers may have periodic tasks in order to update their state or perform some actions.

When possible, the logic of the manager will not be placed in the actor itself, but in a separated library in order to decouple the logic as much as possible from the Actix ecosystem.

There can only be one manager actor of each type per system, and they must be registered into the system registry. This way, any other actor can get the address of the any manager and send messages to it.


A manager actor is defined as a struct with some (or no) state:

/// Any manager actor
pub struct Manager {
    // Whichever state it might need
    state: ManagerState,

In order to become actors, the managers must implement the Actor trait:

/// Make actor from `Manager`
impl Actor for Manager {
    /// Every actor has to provide execution `Context` in which it can run.
    type Context = Context<Self>;

    /// Method that is executed when the actor is started
    fn started(&mut self, _ctx: &mut Self::Context) {
        debug!("Manager actor has been started!")

Manager actors require the implementation of the Default trait (as well as Supervised and SystemService traits) to become a service that can be registered in the system registry.

Actor creation and registration

The creation of a manager actor is usually performed directly by the main process:

let manager_addr = Manager::default().start();

Once the manager actor is started, the main process registers the manager into the system registry:




Messages are defined as structs that contain some input parameters and that must implement the Message trait.

In the Message trait, the Result type needs to be specified. This type is the return type of the function that will handle the message when it arrives:

/// Message handled by the manager 
pub struct ManagerMessage {
    /// Parameter 
    pub param: ParamType,

impl Message for ManagerMessage {
    type Result = ManagerMessageResult;

Incoming messages: Other actors -> Manager

When a ManagerMessage message arrives at the manager actor, it has to be processed by a handler function. That handler function needs to be defined inside the Handler<ManagerMessage> trait of the manager. This trait must also define the Result type as well, just like it was done in the implementation of the Message trait:

/// Handler for ManagerMessage message
impl Handler<ManagerMessage> for Manager {
    type Result = ManagerMessageResult;

    fn handle(&mut self, msg: ManagerMessage, _: &mut Context<Self>) -> Self::Result {
        // Do things to handle the message 

Outgoing messages: Manager -> Other actors

The way the manager will communicate with other actors is:

  1. Get the address of the other manager from the registry:

    // Get other manager address
    let other_manager_addr = System::current().registry().get::<OtherManager>();
  2. Use any of the sending methods provided by the address (do_send(), try_send(), send()) to send a message to the actor:

    // Example
        .then(|res, _act, _ctx| {