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An open protocol needs portable serialization to easily enable alternative implementations.

Witnet uses Protocol Buffers (version 3) to achieve this goal.

The Witnet protocol schema is available here.

Why Protocol Buffers?

At the time of this writing Protocol Buffers is best alternative with support for a standard schema. It has wide support for most popular programming languages and supports the most common data structures.

Custom encodings

Sometimes Protocol Buffers do not provide the necessary flexibility when defining custom types. For example, Protocol Buffers do not support fixed size arrays so the verification that a hash has the correct size is done at a higher level.

All the structures which use a custom serialization can be found in proto/ The following structures are represented as bytes in the protobuf schema:

(|| denotes concatenation)

Signature: bytes
[u8; 65] => r || s || v

Address: bytes
[u8; 6]  => (Ipv4) ip || port 
[u8; 18] => (Ipv6) ip0 || ip1 || ip2 || ip3 || port


Another important point is integer support: in Protocol Buffers the smallest integer size is 32 bits. But a uint32 uses variable length encoding, meaning that it can take from 1 to 5 bytes to encode a number depending on its magnitude. Fixed-size integers are also available, as fixed32 and fixed64.

The default integer mapping is the following:

Rust Protobuf
u16 uint32
u32 fixed32
u64 fixed64
i8 sint32
i16 sint32
i32 sfixed32
i64 sfixed64

However 32 and 64-bit integers can also be encoded using variable length encoding when that makes sense, for example when the number is expected to be low. The Rust structs do not need any modifications for this type of changes, a u32 can be converted from and into a sfixed32 as well as a sint32.


It is possible to construct two different protobuf messages which decode to the same value. In order to ensure that these two messages have the same hash, the message bytes are not hashed directly: they are first decoded from protobuf to Rust structs, running the necessary validations, then encoded again as protobuf, and that new encoding is hashed.